How to Read Music: An Example of Expert Music Reading

Posted by

Let’s revisit the first four bars of Bach’s immortal Minuet in G and explore the variety of ways that an expert musician might perceive and conceive of the music:

Note: You are not expected to understand everything below at this point. The intent, for now, is to expose you to the depth of musical understanding that is possible for even a simple piece of music and to give you a sense of the direction as you develop your musicianship.  All this will come together in your studies of rhythm, scales, solfege, chords, and more.

Overall Impressions: The piece looks like classical music. It does not even remotely look like jazz or rock or ragtime or country. In fact, the melodic-looking bass line suggests the use of something called counterpoint, a commonly used device in baroque music.


Phrasing: Judging by both the contour and rhythm of the melody, these four measures are sub-divided into two two-bar phrases.


Melodic Contours: There is a well-defined contour in the melody that has the very same shape in each 2 bar section. You might conceive of it as a doodle of arrows!


Rhythmic Motives: There is also a well-defined rhythmic motive that is repeated identically in each 2 bar section:


Key: Based on the clues below, the piece in the key of G major:


Of course you should always confirm this by ear. Play and sing along. You will discover that the note that sounds resolved, complete, finished, stable is indeed G! Furthermore, simply listen to the overall sound-feeling and notice that it has a definite major-ish quality.

Time & Rhythm: A quick inspection of the time signature tells us that this piece has an essential “three-ness” to it. We want to conceive of the phrases in the context of this “three-ness” and capture that in our rendition of the music.


Also notice how this three-ness is perfectly suited to and coherent with the phrasing, rhythmic motives, and melodic contour!

Harmonic Structure: The chord progression is shown below along with the Roman Numeral Analysis and all chord tones circled:


Notice how many chord tones are in the melody and how many melody tones are in the harmony. You will see this time and time again in every kind of music!

Melodic Analysis: Here is the melody analyzed in functional terms using Solfege.


Fingering: The expert will see a fingering for this passage that makes physical and musical sense. It should be easy to play and consistent with the flow of the phrases. One solution is shown below. Notice the logical five note groupings with pinkies on the highest note in each phrase and thumbs on the lowest notes in each phrase:


Putting it all Together. Every piece of music is simultaneously all of the things above. Every one of these facets is a kind of pattern… a pattern that you can learn to see, hear, and feel with the right kind of study. While there is no shortcut to expertise, just as there is no shortcut to learning a new language, the great news is that expert music reading is a very learn-able skill that will not take as much time and energy as you might think. The know-how and skills you need to get there are sprinkled all over Piano-ology!



  1. Hello Frank, the notes indicated in the Melodic Analysis using Solfege, are correct?? Should not be Re, Sol (or So in English, I suppose), La, Si (Ti) Do, … ?

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks for asking, Daniel. I have seen Si used instead of Ti. It’s too bad there are multiple names fighting for market share. For the sake of consistency and broadest agreement I had chosen the Do Ra Re Ri Me Mi Fa Fi So Si La Le Ti Do system ascending chromatically and Do Ti Te, La Li So Se Fa Mi Me Re Ra Do system descending chromatically. That said, it’s just a name. Feel free to call it Si or Frank or Daniel or X or Y or orange or whatever. These names are just like bicycle training wheels to be abandoned after we get enough experience to go right to the sound or note on a page or key on the piano. All the best!


      1. Hello Frank, my doubt was not related to the difference in names like “Si” vs “Ti” or “Sol” vs “So”, but in why you used “Do” to name a G note or “Fa” to name a C note, for example.
        I had no idea of the existence of two main types of solfege: ‘Movable Do’ and ‘Fixed Do’ (I have found it by searching the Internet, after seeing you answer because I continued to understand nothing).

        Now I see that in my country (Spain), but also in others, we use ‘Fixed Do’ and the correspondence between the syllables Do, Re, Mi Fa, Sol, La and Si is always the same. I thought that it was something general (C – Do, D – Re, E – Mi, F – Fa, G – Sol, and so on), although with slight differences, like the use of ‘Ti’ instead of ‘Si’.

        But as it seems, it can be a lot more confusing. As I read in wikipedia, in relation to ‘Movable Do’ and Major scale:

        By the opposite, <>

        Every day I learn something 😉

        Liked by 1 person

        1. Thanks for asking, Daniel. It sounds like you understand, Good work!

          I might add two thoughts:

          1) “Fixed Do” may or may not be useful for naming notes for the 1 in 10,000 humans endowed with absolute pitch (AP) recognition. I, for one, do not see why it is taught at alI… even for those with perfect pitch. What is wrong with calling C C and D D and E E and so on?

          2) “Moveable Do” is how the vast majority of humans… me included… hear, enjoy, and understand music. The basic thing is this: Do is the key you are in. Every note is heard and therefore is analyzed with respect to that key center. Unlike AP, RP is a learnable skill.

          All the best to you in music and life.


  2. Sorry, the text quoted (from Wikipedia) has dissapeared when posting. What I tried to indicate in relation to ‘Movable Do’ and Major scale was:

    ` If, at a certain point, the key of a piece modulates, then it is necessary to change the solfège syllables at that point. For example, if a piece begins in C major, then C is initially sung on “do”, D on “re”, etc. If, however, the piece then modulates to G major, then G is sung on “do”, A on “re”, etc., and C is then sung on “fa”. `

    And after “by the opposite” I included the following:
    ` In Fixed do, each syllable corresponds to the name of a note. This is analogous to the Romance system naming pitches after the solfège syllables, and is used in Romance and Slavic countries, among others, including Spanish speaking countries.
    In the major Romance and Slavic languages, the syllables Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, and Si are used to name notes the same way that the letters C, D, E, F, G, A, and B are used to name notes in English. `

    I think that it can be useful to mention it for others like me, used to the ‘Fixed Do’ type.


    Liked by 1 person

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.