Three aural comprehension skills may be of interest: Sight Singing, Playing by Ear, Dictation…
Sight Singing is the process of looking at written music and being able to hear the notes in your “mind’s ear” or to sing them out loud (either in the relative or a absolute sense).
Playing By Ear is the process of translating what you hear in your musical mind into a performance on your instrument.
Dictation is the process of listening to music and translating what you hear into notes on the written page, independently of what instrument you play.
All three are learn-able skills that can be progressively developed with a little bit of know-how and the right kind of study-practice. The Piano-ology approach will touch upon each one as appropriate as we study scales, chords, chord progressions, and real music.